The ureter (you-REE-ter) is the tube connecting the kidneys to the bladder through which urine passes. Ureteral (you-REE-teral) cancer occurs most frequently between the ages of 60 and 70. Ureteral cancer is not very common and is more likely to be found in men than in women. Due to the rarity of this condition, the cause is relatively unknown. Risks seem to be increased by tobacco use, saccharin (SACK-rin), exposure to certain industrial chemicals and dyes, chronic urinary tract infections, and hormones. Warning signs may vary depending on the development of the cancer. The most common warning sign is blood in the urine. Other symptoms may include urinary urgency, painful urination, abdominal or back pain, loss of weight and appetite, persistent fever, and anemia. Treatment for ureteral cancer can include partial to complete removal of the ureter. If the cancer has spread, treatment may also include partial removal of the kidney. Radiation and chemotherapy are not usually treatments for this type of cancer. For more information on ureteral cancer, contact a healthcare professional.